What are the Four Types Of Parenting Style?
It’s always important to ensure that we follow a proper parenting style in upbringing a child. Every parent is different and has their own style in their child’s growth. A catching fact about parenting style is that it has many variations.
Parenting Style refers to the methods and techniques used to raise a child. Based on research, we note each parent follows one of its kind. It was Baumrind who first noticed that preschoolers exhibited three different types of behavior. These behaviors are related to each parenting style.
Parenting through cultures and ages
With a change and demand in societies and cultures, they expect parents to nurture and protect their children. Prescribed parenting practices fit for each context. In India, our scriptures and ancient thought paved ways of inculcating codes of beliefs and conduct in children.
The family unit – the joint family or the more recent nuclear family –is seen to play a vital role in analyzing how parents adopt their style of parenting. While it’s same – joint or nuclear, with an extended family we learn more on how to be cooperative with relationships, as members depend a great deal on each other. The nuclear family focuses on independence, character and being unique.
Importantly, the way we raise children changes and evolves over time and as they grow older.
Based on this, Baumrind identified three initial parenting styles, were later classified into 4 by other researchers.
These four parenting styles are called the Baumrind parenting styles or sometimes referred to as Maccoby and Martin parenting styles.
Based on parenting behaviors, these styles are classified as:
Here we have compiled the different parenting styles for your easy look out:
- Authoritarian or Disciplinarian Parenting
- Authoritative Parenting
- Permissive or Indulgent Parenting
- Uninvolved Parenting
1. Authoritarian or Disciplinarian Parenting
In this, we see that the demandingness of the parent is high and low responsiveness.
This parenting style name goes similar to the authoritative parenting style. The fact is, they have several important distinct objectives and parenting beliefs. Both parental styles demand high standards, but on a higher note, authoritarian parents demand blind obedience expecting children to follow what they say. These parents use stern discipline and punish their child to control their children’s behavior. Authoritarian parents are unresponsive to their children’s needs. They are found not nurturing.
- Authoritarian Parents
- Strict discipline style with less negotiation technique is used.
- They seem to usually use punishment as a solution.
- Only one way of communication: from parent to child.
- They are unclear about their wants.
- Expectations are high with limited flexibility.
- Authoritarian Children
- Tend to have an unhappy life.
- Always depend on their parents.
- The feeling of being insecure.
- Possess lower self-esteem.
- Exhibit more behavioral problems.
- Don’t have a sound academic performance.
2. Authoritative Parenting
In this, we note high demandingness and high responsiveness.
We see authoritative parents have high expectations for achievement and maturity and are simultaneously warm and responsive. They set rules and enforce boundaries but they also have an open discussion and provide solutions with a reason. This kind of parents is affectionate and supportive. They welcome independence. This parenting style too is known as the Democratic Parenting Style.
- Authoritative Parents
- They set the disciplinary rules clearly.
- Provide a reason for what it requires out of their children.
- Frequent communication and a good level of understanding.
- They are more nurturing.
- They have high expectations and goals explained clearly.
- Authoritative Children
- They are happy and contented.
- We see them more independent.
- Note great academic success.
- They develop good self-esteem.
- They have competent social skills.
- Possess good mental health — less depression, anxiety, alcohol, and drug use.
- They tend to exhibit less violent tendencies.
3. Permissive or Indulgent Parenting
In this, we see low demandingness and high responsiveness.
These parents set very few rules and boundaries and they do not enforce rules. These parents are warm and kin. They feel it’s wrong to say no or disappoint their children.
- Permissive Parents
- They are lenient. They have limited or no rules and allow children to focus problems out individually.
- We find open communication and the choice is of the child.
- They are warm and nurturing.
- Minimal or no expectations.
- Children of permissive parenting
- Cannot follow the rules.
- They have worse self-control.
- We can notice egocentric tendencies.
- Tend to encounter more problems in relationships and social interactions.
4. Uninvolved Parenting
We notice this as a negative parenting style as we observe low demandingness and low responsiveness.
These parents neglect their children and do not set firm boundaries or high standards. They don’t care about their children’s needs and are uninvolved in their lives. These uninvolved parents seem to have their own mental issues which include maternal depression, physical abuse or child neglect when they were children.
- Uninvolved Parents
- There is no particular discipline style used.
- Children act to their wish. They are not caring and do not worry about child milestones.
- Limited conversations.
- They don’t expect from their children and they do not follow nurturing.
- Children of uninvolved parents
- They are more impulsive.
- They don’t seem to self-regulate emotion.
- There are more delinquency and addictions problems.
- Face many mental issues — e.g. suicidal behavior in adolescents.
What is My Parenting Style?
While we can fit into any of the above parenting, it is always a combination of styles is required to raise a child. Think of the four styles as perpetuity instead of four distinct ways to parent.
Which Parenting Style is best?
From studies and researchers, it is found that authoritative parenting is consistently linked to the best outcomes in children. So the authoritative parenting style is considered the best. It is too most effective parenting style as stated by psychologists and psychiatrists.
Whatever be told, inconsistencies and exceptions in some cases of parenting style are still noticed.